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Brown's Boundary Control & Legal Principles, 7th Ed, 552 pages
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The new edition of has been updated to reflect ongoing changes in surveying technology and surveying law, notably by adding water boundary expert George Cole as a contributor to revamp information on Riparian and Littorial Boundaries. Additionally, a new appendix has been introduced containing a comprehensive list of surveying books that have been referenced in court cases and legal decisions as persuasive authority over the years. It is indispensable reading for students and practicioners studying for the Fundamentals of Land Surveying licensure exam.
CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND CONCEPT OF BOUNDARIES 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Significance of Boundaries 3
1.3 Boundary References 4
1.4 Terminus: The God (or Goddess) of Boundaries 6
1.5 Disputes and Boundaries 7
1.6 Role of the Surveyor in Boundaries 9
1.7 What Is Being Created? What Is Being Located? 13
1.8 Original Written Title 15
1.9 Rights and Interests in Land Are Composed of a Bundle of Rights 16
1.10 Role of the Court 19
1.11 Real and Personal Property 20
1.12 What Constitutes Real Property 21
1.13 Nature of Modern Estates 24
1.14 Taxes on Land and Tax Maps 25
1.15 Easements and Licenses 25
1.16 Servitudes, Restrictions, Covenants, and Conditions 29
1.17 Actions on Boundaries and Easements 30
1.18 One Unique Parcel or Boundary 31
1.19 The Original Boundaries Are Sacred 31
1.20 Conclusions 32
CHAPTER 2 HOW BOUNDARIES ARE CREATED 35
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Definitions 36
2.3 Classification of Boundaries 39
2.4 Methods of Boundary Creation 40
2.5 Who May Create Boundaries? 43
2.6 Sanctity of the Original Survey 47
2.7 Original Lines Remain Fixed 47
2.8 Distinctions between the Original Boundary Survey, the Retracement Survey, and the First          Survey 48
2.9 Original Technological Methods of Boundary Creation Not Relatable to Modern Methods 49
2.10 Original Lines May Be Redescribed As a Result of a Retracement 50
2.11 Conclusions 50
CHAPTER 3 OWNERSHIP, TRANSFER, AND DESCRIPTION OF REAL PROPERTY AND ACCOMPANYING RIGHTS 53
3.1 Concepts of Boundaries, Land Ownership, and Land Descriptions 53
3.2 Overview of Boundaries 55
3.3 Public and Private Lands 58
3.4 Sources of Title 59
3.5 Voluntary Transfer of Real Property 60
3.6 Chain of Title 60
3.7 Torrens Title System 61
3.8 Unwritten Rights or Title to Land 62
3.9 Methods of Voluntary Transfer of Title 63
3.10 Deed or Description 64
3.11 Title or Lien 65
3.12 Deed of Trust 65
3.13 Mortgage 65
3.14 Escrow 66
3.15 Title Assurance and Title Insurance 66
3.16 Abstractors 67
3.17 Attorney’s Opinion 68
3.18 General Land Descriptions 68
3.19 What Is in a Description? 68
3.20 Measurements 69
3.21 Magnetic Directions 74
3.22 Reference Datums 75
3.23 Elements of Land Descriptions 77
3.24 Types of Descriptions 77
3.25 Conclusions 80
CHAPTER 4 BOUNDARIES, LAW, AND RELATED PRESUMPTIONS 81
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Constitutional Law and the Surveyor 82
4.3 Jurisdiction 83
4.4 Federal Jurisdiction 83
4.5 Federal Government, Agency, or Officer as a Party 84
4.6 Sovereign Immunity 84
4.7 United States as a Defendant 85
4.8 Disposing of Federal Lands 85
4.9 Color of Title Act 85
4.10 Public Law 120 86
4.11 Small Tracts Act 86
4.12 Researching the Laws 86
4.13 Court Reports 87
4.14 Legal Research 88
4.15 Judicial Notice 89
4.16 Evidence 90
4.17 Presumptions 92
4.18 Common Presumptions 93
4.19 Survey Systems Present in the United States 94
4.20 Conclusions 97
CHAPTER 5 CREATION AND INTERPRETATION OF METES AND BOUNDS AND OTHER NONSECTIONALIZED DESCRIPTIONS 99
5.1 Introduction 99
5.2 Methods of Creating Metes and Bounds or Nonsectionalized Descriptions 103
5.3 Metes Descriptions 103
5.4 Bounds Descriptions 106
5.5 Combination Metes and Bounds Descriptions 107
5.6 Strip Descriptions and Stationing 108
5.7 Descriptions by Reference 109
5.8 Aliquot Descriptions 109
5.9 Other Means of Creating Boundaries in Descriptions 111
5.10 Nomenclature in Metes and Bounds Descriptions 113
5.11 Adjoiners 121
5.12 Deed Terms for Curves 121
5.13 Lines and Their Elements 123
5.14 Tax Descriptions and Abbreviated Descriptions 130
5.15 Subdivision Descriptions 132
5.16 Parcels Created by Protraction 134
5.17 Features of Platting Acts 134
5.18 Writing Land Descriptions 135
5.19 Early Surveys 135
5.20 Priority of Calls in Metes and Bounds Surveys 138
5.21 Applying Priority Calls 139
5.22 Conclusions 141
CHAPTER 6 CREATION AND RETRACEMENT OF GLO BOUNDARIES 143
6.1 Introduction 143
6.2 Original Surveys and Corrective Surveys 146
6.3 Law, Manuals, and Special Instructions 146
6.4 Effect of Manuals on Resurveys 147
6.5 History of the Public Land Survey System 148
6.6 Testing Ground: The Seven Ranges 149
6.7 Act of May 18, 1796—Clarification of 1785 154
6.8 Acts of 1800 156
6.9 1803—The System Explodes 159
6.10 Act of March 26, 1804 160
6.11 Act of February 11, 1805 160
6.12 Land Surveys after 1805 163
6.13 Survey Instructions 164
6.14 State Instructions and Statutes 169
6.15 Instruments Used 177
6.16 Field Notes 179
6.17 Nomenclature for Sections 179
6.18 Meandering 179
6.19 Resurveys and Retracements 179
6.20 Defective Boundaries Encountered in Resurveys 181
6.21 Sectionalized Surveys and Innovations 182
6.22 Irregular Original Government Subdivisions 182
6.23 Townships Other Than Regular 182
6.24 Summary of the GLO System 184
CHAPTER 7 FEDERAL AND STATE NONSECTIONALIZED LAND SURVEYS 188
7.1 Introduction 188
7.2 Early New England and Other Colonial-Era Surveys 189
7.3 Ohio Company of Associates 192
7.4 Donation Tract 193
7.5 Symmes Purchase 193
7.6 Virginia Military District 194
7.7 United States Military Tract 195
7.8 Connecticut Western Reserve and Firelands 195
7.9 Moravian Tracts 196
7.10 Florida Keys Survey 196
7.11 Donation Land Claims 197
7.12 Exchange Surveys and Their Status 197
7.13 Prior Land Grants from Foreign Governments 197
7.14 French Grants in the Louisiana Purchase 198
7.15 Mississippi Townships 202
7.16 Soldier’s Additional Homestead 203
7.17 Indian Allotment Surveys 203
7.18 National Forest Homestead Entry 203
7.19 Tennessee Townships 203
7.20 Florida: Forbes Company Purchase Surveys 205
7.21 Georgia Lot System 206
Surveys in the Noncontinental United States 210
7.22 General Comments 210
7.23 Hawaiian Land Laws 210
7.24 Puerto Rican Land Surveys 213
7.25 Federal Mineral Surveys: General Comments 216
7.26 Water and Mineral Right Laws 216
7.27 Land Open to Appropriation of Minerals 217
7.28 Veins, Lodes, or Ledges 217
7.29 Extralateral and Intralimital Rights 218
7.30 Mill Sites 220
7.31 Tunnel Locations 220
7.32 Size of Claims 220
7.33 Discovery 221
7.34 Locations 221
7.35 Possession 222
7.36 Annual Expenditures 222
7.37 Requirements for Patent 222
7.38 United States Mineral Surveyors 223
7.39 Survey of the Claim 223
7.40 Conclusions 224
CHAPTER 8 LOCATING EASEMENTS AND REVERSIONS 226
8.1 Introduction 226
8.2 Rights Granted 229
8.3 Fee Title or Easement Right 232
8.4 Three Easement Descriptions and Three Boundaries 233
8.5 Ownership of the Bed of Easements 233
8.6 Surveyor’s Responsibility as to Easements 233
8.7 Requirements for Locating Easements 234
8.8 Centerline Presumption 235
8.9 Conveyances with Private Way Boundaries 236
8.10 Use of Easements 237
8.11 Revival of Public Easements 237
8.12 Creation of Easement Boundaries 237
8.13 Dividing Private Street Ownership 240
8.14 Words Used in Centerline Conveyances 241
8.15 Apportioning Reversion Rights 241
8.16 General Principle of Reversion 242
8.17 Reversion Rights of a Lot on a Curved Street 243
8.18 Lots Adjoining Two Subdivision Boundaries 244
8.19 Lots at an Angle Point in a Road 245
8.20 Indeterminate Situations 246
8.21 Exceptions to the Rules of Apportionment 247
8.22 Describing Vacated Streets and Easements 248
8.23 Litigating Easements 250
8.24 Conclusions 250
CHAPTER 9 RIPARIAN AND LITTORAL BOUNDARIES 252
9.1 Introduction 252
9.2 Ownership of the Seas 256
9.3 Ownership of the U.S. Territorial Sea 256
9.4 Ownership of Interior Tidal Waters of the United States 258
9.5 Landward Boundary of Tidal Waters 259
9.6 Ownership of Nontidal Navigable Waters 262
9.7 Landward Boundaries of Nontidal Waters 263
9.8 Significance of Public Land Survey Meander Lines 264
9.9 Ownership of Non–Publicly Owned Submerged Lands 266
9.10 Swamp and Overflowed Lands 267
9.11 Navigational Servitude 268
9.12 Public Regulation of Riparian and Littoral Lands 268
9.13 Shoreline Changes and Water Boundaries 270
9.14 Apportionment of Riparian and Littoral Rights 272
9.15 Emergent or Omitted Islands 277
9.16 Water Boundaries other Than Sea 277
9.17 Major Recognized Areas 278
9.18 Conclusions and Recommendations 278
CHAPTER 10 RETRACING AND “RESURVEYING” SECTIONALIZED LANDS 281
10.1 Introduction 281
10.2 Areas of Authority 286
10.3 Resurvey or Retracement 287
10.4 Types of Surveys and Resurveys 288
10.5 Court of Proper Jurisdiction 290
10.6 Federal Patents 291
10.7 Intent of the Government 291
10.8 Senior Rights 291
10.9 Following the Footsteps 292
10.10 Lines Marked and Surveyed 293
10.11 Original Corners 293
10.12 Original Field Notes and Plats 294
10.13 Closing Corners 296
10.14 Identification of Corners and Lines 296
10.15 Monuments and Their Identification 297
10.16 Evidence of Corners 298
10.17 Use of Testimony in Boundaries 299
10.18 Common Usage 300
10.19 Using Recorded Information to Locate Original Lines 301
10.20 Proportioning: The Last Resort 301
10.21 Relocating Lost Corners 302
10.22 Proportionate Measure or Proration 303
10.23 Single Proportionate Measurement 304
10.24 Double Proportionate Measurement 305
10.25 Restoration of Lost Standard Corners on Standard Parallels, Correction Lines, and Baselines 306
10.26 Restoration of Lost Township Corners on Principal Meridians and Guide Meridians 307
10.27 Restoration of Lost Township and Section Corners Originally Established with Cross-Ties in Four Directions 307
10.28 Restoration of Lost Corners along Township Lines 308
10.29 Restoration of Lost Township and Section Corners Where the Line Was Not Established in One Direction 308
10.30 Restoration of Lost Corners Where the Intersecting Lines Have Been Established in Only Two Directions 309
10.31 Restoration of Quarter-Section Corners in Regular Sections 310
10.32 Restoration of Quarter-Section Corners Where Only Part of a Section Was Surveyed Originally 310
10.33 Restoration of a Closing Section Corner on a Standard Parallel 311
10.34 Restoration of a Lost North Quarter Corner in a Closing Section 312
10.35 Restoration of Lost Nonriparian Meander Corners 313
10.36 Restoration of Riparian Meander Lines 314
10.37 Restoration of Nonriparian Meander Lines 314
10.38 Restoration of Irregular Exteriors 315
10.39 Lost Corner Restoration Methods 315
10.40 Resurvey Instructions Issued in 1879 and 1883 316
10.41 Half-Mile Posts in Florida and Alabama 317
Subdivision of Sections 317
10.42 General Comments 317
10.43 Subdivision by Protraction 318
10.44 Establishing the North Quarter Corner of Closing Sections on a Standard Parallel and Other Quarter
Corners Not Originally Set 318
10.45 Establishment of Centerlines and Center Quarter Corners 320
10.46 Establishment of Quarter-Quarter Section Lines and Corners 321
10.47 Fractional Sections Centerline 322
10.48 Senior Right of Lines 322
10.49 Gross Errors and Erroneously Omitted Areas 323
10.50 Relocating Corners from Other Townships or from Interior Corners 325
10.51 Procedures for Conducting Retracements 325
10.52 Interpretation of Aliquot Descriptions 327
10.53 According to the Government Measure 329
Differences Between State and Federal Interpretations 329
10.54 Applying State Laws 329
10.55 Topography 330
10.56 Boundaries by Area 330
10.57 Establishing Corners 331
10.58 Sections Created under State Jurisdiction 332
10.59 Presumptions and Realities for GLO Surveys 333
10.60 Conclusions 335
CHAPTER 11 LOCATING SEQUENTIAL CONVEYANCES 337
11.1 Introduction 337
11.2 Definition of Sequential Conveyances 340
11.3 Simultaneous Conveyances 341
11.4 Possession 342
11.5 Sequential Patents 342
11.6 Importance of Knowledge 342
11.7 Junior and Senior Rights between Private Parties 343
11.8 Deeds Must Be in Writing and Deemed to Be Whole 344
11.9 Direction of the Survey 345
11.10 Terms of the Deed 345
11.11 Call for a Plat 346
11.12 Informative and Controlling Terms 346
Order of Importance of Conflicting Title Elements 347
11.13 General Comments 347
11.14 Senior Rights 349
11.15 Call for an Adjoiner 350
11.16 Written Intentions of the Parties to the Deed 350
11.17 Aids to Interpret the Intent of a Deed 352
11.18 Control of Unwritten Title Lines 352
11.19 Lines Marked and Surveyed 353
11.20 Corner Definitions 355
11.21 Control of Monuments 355
11.22 Control between Conflicting Monuments 357
11.23 Explanation of the Principles 358
11.24 Importance of the Word “To” 362
11.25 Dignity of Record Monuments 362
11.26 Control Point of a Monument 363
11.27 Uncalled-For Monuments 363
11.28 Error or Mistake in a Description 364
11.29 Control of Bearing and Distance 365
11.30 Control of Either Bearing or Distance 365
11.31 Distribution of Errors in Several Boundary Lines 368
11.32 Cardinal Directions 369
11.33 Unrestricted General Terms 370
11.34 Direction of Survey 371
11.35 Area or Surface 371
11.36 Point of Beginning 372
11.37 Construed Most Strongly against Grantor 372
11.38 Errors and Ambiguous Terms 373
11.39 Coordinates 374
11.40 Direct Line Measurement 374
11.41 Treatment of Curves 375
11.42 First Stated Conditions 376
11.43 Written and Character Numbers 376
11.44 Unit Implied 376
11.45 Feet and Inches 376
11.46 General and Particular Provisions 377
Basis of Bearings 378
11.47 Deflection Method versus Compass Bearings 378
11.48 Summary, Interpretation of the Principles, and Conclusion 381
CHAPTER 12 LOCATING SIMULTANEOUSLY CREATED BOUNDARIES 386
12.1 Introduction 386
12.2 Defining Subdivisions 389
Subdivision Boundaries and Corners 390
12.3 Aliquot Part Subdivision 390
12.4 Controlling Boundaries 391
12.5 Subdivision Macro Boundary Wrongly Monumented 393
12.6 Subdivision Boundaries Incorrectly Described 393
Conflicting Elements in Descriptions 394
12.7 General Comments 394
12.8 Original Method of Creating Lots 394
12.9 Intention of the Parties 394
12.10 Finality of Original Lines 395
12.11 Control of Original Monuments within Subdivision Boundaries 396
12.12 Title Monuments 398
12.13 Control of Monuments Over Plats 398
12.14 Certainty of Monument Identification 398
12.15 Record Description of Monuments 399
12.16 Principles for Presumed Control Between Conflicting Monuments within Subdivisions 399
12.17 Explaining Principles 400
12.18 Introduction to Proportioning 404
Establishment of Streets 405
12.19 General Comments 405
12.20 Establishment of Streets by Natural Monuments 405
12.21 Establishment of Streets and Alleys by Artificial Monuments and Lines Actually Run at the Time of Making the Plat 405
12.22 Establishment of Streets by Improvements 407
12.23 Establishment of Streets by the Line of a Nearby Street 408
12.24 Establishment of Streets by Plat 409
12.25 Establishment of Streets Where Width Is Not Given 410
12.26 Establishment of Streets by City Engineers’ Monuments 410
Establishment of Lots within Subdivisions 412
12.27 Effect of Mathematical Error 412
12.28 Excess or Deficiency 413
12.29 Proration: A Rule of Last Resort 413
12.30 Excess or Deficiency Confined to a Block 414
12.31 Excess or Deficiency Distribution within Blocks 415
12.32 Single Proportionate Measure 415
12.33 Single Proportionate Measure on Curves 416
12.34 Distribution of Excess and Deficiency Beyond a Monument 418
12.35 Establishment of Lots Where the End Lot Measurement Is Not Given 419
12.36 Remnant Principle 419
12.37 Establishment of Lots Where No Lot measurement Is Given 424
12.38 Establishment of Lots with Area Only Given 424
12.39 New York Rule For Establishment of Lots 424
12.40 Summary of Proration Rules 428
12.41 Establishment of Lots Adjoining Subdivision Boundaries 428
12.42 Establishment of Lots Adjoining a Subdivision Correctly Established 429
12.43 Establishment of Lots Overlapping the True Subdivision Boundaries 429
12.44 Establishment of Lots Not Touching the True Boundary of the Subdivision 430
12.45 Proration of Excess and Deficiency in Blocks Closing on Subdivision Boundaries 431
12.46 Locating Lots from Boundary Lines 432
12.47 Obliterated and Lost Subdivisions 432
Proceedings in Partition 433
12.48 General Comments 433
12.49 Establishment of Lines Determined by Proceedings in Partition 433
12.50 Establishment of Boundaries of Allottees of Wills 434
12.51 Deed Divisions 434
12.52 Comments 434
CHAPTER 13 LOCATING COMBINATION DESCRIPTIONS AND CONVEYANCES 436
13.1 Introduction 436
“Of” Descriptions 438
13.2 “Of,” “In,” and “At” Descriptions within Subdivisions and Adjoining Streets 438
13.3 “Of” Descriptions within Metes and Bounds Descriptions and Adjoining Streets 440
13.4 Direction of Measurement 443
13.5 Proportional “Of” Conveyance 444
13.6 Exception by One-Half by Area 445
13.7 Indeterminate Proportional Conveyances 445
13.8 Angular Direction of the Dividing Line in “Of” Descriptions 446
13.9 Acreage “Of” Descriptions 449
13.10 Ambiguity 450
            Overlaps and Gaps 454
13.11 Calls from Two Directions 454
Establishment of Property Described by Both Metes and Bounds and Subdivision Descriptions 454
13.12 Double Descriptions 454
13.13 New York Double Descriptions 455
13.14 Natural Phenomena and Boundaries 455
13.15 Recognition of Past Events 460
CHAPTER 14 ROLE OF THE SURVEYOR 462
14.1 Introduction 462
14.2 Function of the Surveyor 464
14.3 Opinions of Fact and Applications of Law 464
14.4 Establishment of Boundaries 466
14.5 Establishment in Louisiana 467   
            Private Surveys 467
14.6 Responsibility and Authority of the Surveyor 467
14.7 Basis of a Boundary Survey 468
14.8 How Much Research? 469
14.9 Ownership 470
14.10 Encroachments 470
14.11 Searching for Monuments 471
14.12 Possession Marking Original Survey Lines 472
14.13 Evidence 472
14.14 Setting Monuments 473
14.15 Plats 473
14.16 Liability 474
14.17 Conclusion 475
CHAPTER 15 THE ETHICS AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF BOUNDARY CREATION AND OF RETRACEMENTS 478
15.1 Introduction 478
15.2 The Philosophy of Boundaries 479
15.3 Applying the Principles to Creating and Retracing
Boundaries 480
15.4 Final Comments 486
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 489
INDEX 515

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